Egypt forward Salah has scored 31 goals in 34 Premier League games this season and leads the race for the Premier League golden boot ahead of Kane who has scored 27.
Former Chelsea player Salah has scored 43 goals in all competitions this season. Salah, 25, joined Liverpool from Roma for around £35m last summer.
Salah and De Bruyne received more than 90% of the votes from members of the FWA, according to figures released by the body on Tuesday.
Salah is the first African winner of the award, and FWA Chairman Patrick Barclay described the race between the Liverpool forward and De Bruyne as “the toughest call since 1968-69”, when there was a dead heat between Tony Book of Manchester City and Derby’s Dave Mackay.
“Right up to the last week or so we thought it might happen again, so strong was the support for Kevin de Bruyne,” Barclay said.
“But Mo Salah’s relentless match-winning form, exemplified by his two great goals against Roma, seems to have swung the vote by a very narrow margin.”
Other players to receive votes from FWA members were: Sergio Aguero (Man City), Christian Eriksen (Tottenham), Roberto Firmino (Liverpool), Nick Pope (Burnley), David Silva (Manchester City), Raheem Sterling (Man City) and Jan Vertonghen (Tottenham).